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Dairy and the US Congress

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Collection Overview

This collection documents legislative issues relating to dairy such as milk pricing, subsidies, and oleomargarine. Vermont's congressional delegation has a long and active history in matters relating to Vermont's dairy farmers and the dairy industry. George Aiken, Elbert Brigham, James Jeffords, and Patrick Leahy all served on Agriculture committees and their collections document many of the agricultural issues that faced Congress in the 20th Century.

Time Period Covered: 1941-1975 

Parent Collections

Congressional Papers

Related Archival Collection(s)

George D. Aiken Papers

Published:  November 07, 2006,  University of Vermont, Bailey/Howe Library, Special Collections

Rights:  Requests to reproduce this item should be sent to the UVM Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives at cdi@uvm.edu. For more information, see http://cdi.uvm.edu/about/rights. More information.


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Title:   Dairy – Legislation – Correspondence, 1963

Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

Date:  1963

Resource type:   text

Topics include Class I milk marketing order proposals by Senator Proxmire (WI) and Senator McCarthy (MN), both of which were opposed by Senator Aiken; proposed changes to the Agricultural Adjustment Act by the USDA; milk prices; milk surpluses.

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    Title:   Dairy – Legislation – Correspondence, 1963

    Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984

    Date:  1963

    Resource type:   text

    Topics include Class I milk marketing order proposals by Senator Proxmire (WI) and Senator McCarthy (MN), both of which were opposed by Senator Aiken; milk sanitation legislation; remarks of Rep. Samuel Stratton (NY) in the House of Representatives on federal dairy legislation; milk prices; milk production and surpluses; comments of Elmer Towne, Vermont Commisssioner of Agriculture, on Kennedy administration’s proposed dairy legislation.

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      Title:   Dairy, 1953

      Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

      Date:  1953

      Resource type:   text

      Topics include cost of feed; door-to-door delivery of milk and automatic dispensers; price support for dairy; decline in livestock values; surplus butter and the armed services; dairy industry advisory committee called by Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Benson; oleomargarine; large purchases of butter by the Commodity Credit Corporation; President Dwight Eisenhower; Milk Producers Federation banquet; two-price system; price of Class I milk; low fat content butter; shipment of unregulated milk into the New York-New Jersey marketing area; milk surplus.

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        Title:   Dairy, USDA Proposed Amendment to Class I Prices, 1963

        Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

        Date:  1963

        Resource type:   text

        Topics include hearing Federal Milk Order pricing, particularly proposed amendments to Class I milk pricing; letter from Elmer Towne, Vermont Commissioner of Agriculture, supporting continuation of Class I milk pricing.

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          Title:   Dairy: Abernethy "Self-Help" bill (Library), 1958

          Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

          Date:  1958

          Resource type:   text

          Topics include H.R. 10043 by Representative Thomas Abernethy (MS), which is the same as a bill in the Senate by Senators Hubert Humphrey (MN) and Alexander Wiley (WI); bill would establish a "Dairy Stabilization Board" which would be empowered to fix prices, control production, establish the level of price supports for manufacturing milk, and conceivably take over all the processing functions; response of Vermont farm organizations to the bill; Aiken's estimation of the chance of the bill in Congress; current balance between consumption and production of milk; fertilizer payments; Vermont hearings on the "Self-Help" bill.

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            Title:   Dairy: Correspondence and Dairymen's League vs. Teamsters, 1959

            Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

            Date:  1959

            Resource type:   text

            Topics include New England Milkshed Price Committee; letter from Elmer Towne, Vermont Commissioner of Agriculture, on a variety of dairy issues in Vermont; continuation of dairy support prices; National Conference on Interstate Shipments of Milk and a proposed national milk standards act; USDA General Counsel's opinion of proposed limitations on dairy price supports in the Department of Agriculture and Farm Credit Adminstration Appropriation Act for the fiscal year 1960; "Swedish Treatment" for mastitis; pesticide and antibiotic residues in milk.

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              Title:   Dairy: Correspondence, 1954

              Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

              Date:  1954

              Topics include proposal relating to the parity equivalent of manufacturing milk; disposal of powdered milk surplus in foreign countries; Richard Aplin, Milk Marketing Administrator for the Boston Area; price supports and government surpluses of dairy products; marketing quotas and reduced output of milk; fluid milk purchases; export of dairy products; herd culling program; proper use of diverted acres; price of grain used for dairy rations; milk rations for Armed Services; size of dairy farms and government support for small farms; Commodity Credit Corporation; Senate Committee on Agriculture hearings on dairy support price; decreasing demand for milk; role of Democratic party in creating current dairy industry problems; milk vending machines for office buildings and factories; strawberry milk; Brucellosis; sale of milk in two and four quart cartons; importation of hay and cattle from Canada; field dairy hearings; proposed dairy program; President Eisenhower's flexible price support program; Agricultural Agreement Act of 1937 and domestic trade barriers affecting milk and milk products; meeting of all farm organizations in Vermont interested in dairy to consider general policy questions.

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                Title:   Dairy: General Correspondence, 1962

                Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                Date:  1962

                Resource type:   text

                Topics include USDA study on probable effects on prices and consumption of quota plans to restrict farm marketings of milk and cream; remarks of President Kennedy to the National Conference on Milk and Nutrition; milk and grain surplus figures; press release from Senator Proxmire (WI) on milk price supports; memo from Charlie Weaver to Aiken about a plan proposed by Bill Welden of Hood to fight proposed quota legislation.

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                  Title:   Dairy: General Correspondence, 1962

                  Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                  Date:  1962

                  Resource type:   text

                  Topics include Senator Aiken's correspondence to constituents on small dairy farms; processing tax on feed grain; dairy farm surpluses; milk dating; marketing quotas; roller dried skim milk powder; proposal to collect milk promotion funds through federal milk market orders; bulk tanks; Milk Marketing Program; improving milk quality and production methods.

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                    Title:   Dairy: H.R.12138 Lehigh Valley Case; Amendments to NY NJ Milk order; Jesse Stalker Case,1962

                    Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                    Date:  1962

                    Resource type:   text

                    Topics include Lehigh Valley Coop. v. United States, Supreme Court case; H.R. 12138, a bill to amend the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1937 to permit certain payments under milk marketing orders; amendments to New York-New Jersey milk order; Jessee Stalker case, a New York producer-handler

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                      Title:   Dairy: Misc. (Library), 1957-1958

                      Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                      Date:  1957-1958

                      Topics include New England milk market and its different marketing orders; New York milk strike and New York milk market; responsibility of state governments in improving circumstances for dairy farmers; Federal Milk Order; effect of the New York milk strike on the Republican Party; Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Benson; differences in milk production around the country; consumption of dairy products; loans for milk tanks; opinions on dairy price supports by various Vermont farm constituencies as reported by Vermont Commissioner of Agriculture, Elmer Towne; Abernethy "Self-Help" bill; effects on Vermont farmers of a New England wide milk marketing order; proposal to extend the present export price assistance program to dry whole milk, and to evaporated milk; report on Eastern Milk Marketing Order; price war in the Boston market; growth of Hood Co.; Whiting Milk Company's economic difficulties and proposal to have operating cooperatives buy it; Southeastern New England milk order; milk production and pricing in Connecticut.

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                        Title:   Dairy: Northeast Milk Marketing Order, 1962

                        Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                        Date:  1962

                        Resource type:   text

                        Topics include Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman's decision on proposed amendments to milk marketing orders; response to decision from the Northeastern Association of State Departments of Agriculture; milk prices.

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                          Title:   Issues of oleomargarine tax repeal : a classification of the arguments for and against repeal; digest of the debate of H.R. 2445 in the House of Representatives and summary of the testimony in relation to the bill presented to the Senate Committee on Finance at hearings and in statements submitted to the Committee.

                          Creator:  United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance

                          Date:  1948

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                            Title:   Milk Marketing, 1941-1942

                            Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                            Date:  1941-1942

                            Resource type:   text

                            Topics include milk prices; United States Department of Agriculture Marketing Administration regulations for the Greater Boston and New York marketing areas; drought conditions and low cost feed.

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                              Title:   Milk Marketing, 1941-1942

                              Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984

                              Date:  1941-1942

                              Resource type:   text

                              Topics include milk prices; United States Department of Agriculture Marketing Administration regulations for the Greater Boston and New York marketing areas; need for unification of agricultural groups to become a stronger advocate for farmers; Agricultural Marketing Agreement of 1937; milk distributors in the greater New York City area and price fixing; Senate Committee on Agriculture; Providence, Rhode Island Milk Market; butter fat content of milk; United States Department of Agriculture Office of Price Administration; milk retailers; President Roosevelt's Economic Stabilization Program.

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                                Title:   Milk, 1943-1945

                                Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                Date:  1943-1945

                                Resource type:   text

                                Topics include milk prices for Springfield and Fitchburg, Massachusetts; creamery butter and cheese production estimates; dairy subsidies and milk production; Senate Committee on Agriculture; Senator Warren Austin (VT); Board of Health regulations and the unloading of milk at Hood's creamery in Newport, Vermont; United Farmers Co-operative Creamery Association, Inc.; United States War Food Administration; effect of drought on hay and pasture crops; State Control Boards and surplus milk; United States Office of Price Administration; milk coolers; price of whole milk and butter; Ingelside Dairy; New York milk marketing area; milk fat quota and the manufacture of frozen dairy foods and mix; retail price of milk; importation of milk from Canada.

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                                  Title:   Milk, 1952

                                  Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                  Date:  1952

                                  Resource type:   text

                                  Topics include rising cost of dairy production and high cost of feed; Office of Price Stabilization and Supplemental Regulation 63; price control of dairy products; letter from Secretary of State Dean Acheson to Senator Burnet Maybank (SC) in regards to the Defense Production Act; statement of George Paul before the Senate Banking and Currency Committee setting forth the views of the National Creameries Association in regards to the Defense Production Act; Secretary of Agriculture Charles F. Brannan; pricing of class 1-C milk in New Jersey and Senate Committee hearings; appropriations for the Dairy Herd Improvement Association Division of the Bureau of Dairy Industry.

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                                    Title:   Milk: Correspondence H.R. 2119, S. 762, 1949

                                    Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                    Date:  1892-1984

                                    Resource type:   text

                                    Topics include bills in House and Senate to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to announce the parity price of milk and announce or make effective the support price of milk; mandatory supports for dairy products; disposal of surplus dairy products; proposed suspension of Boston milk order; Vermont farm cooperatives; supply and demand provision of the New England milk formula; United Farmers of New England; proposed equalizing of prices in New York and New England milksheds; marketing of Class II New York milk in New England secondary markets.

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                                      Title:   Oleomargarine Bill: Correspondence, 1948

                                      Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                      Date:  1948

                                      Resource type:   text

                                      Resource type:   letter

                                      Topics include oleomargarine regulation; oleomargarine tax; oleomargarine use in hotels and restaurants disguised as butter; oleomargarine coloring; oleomargarine production and the cost of butter; oleomargarine advertisements in Life magazine.

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                                        Title:   Oleomargarine Bill: Correspondence, 1948

                                        Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                        Date:  1948

                                        Resource type:   text

                                        Resource type:   letter

                                        Topics include oleomargarine legislation; oleomargarine tax; oleomargarine use in hotels and restaurants disguised as butter; oleomargarine coloring; production of oleomargarine and the cornering of the cotton oil market by two companies; oleomargarine bill in the Senate Committee on Finance; rather than the Senate Agriculture Committee; the United States Food and Drug Administration and the misbranding of foods; Vermont dairy industry; corn syrup served as maple syrup.

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                                          Title:   Oleomargarine Hearings: H.R. 2245, 1948

                                          Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                          Date:  1948

                                          Resource type:   text

                                          Tax on Oleomargarine; proposed amendment drafts; statistical report on the use of foreign coconut oil in margarine; statistical reports on oleomargarine produced and materials used for January and February 1948 as compared to January and February 1947.

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                                            Title:   Oleomargarine: H.R. 2023, 1950

                                            Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                            Date:  1950

                                            Resource type:   text

                                            Topics include H.R. 2023, an act to regulate oleomargarine, to repeal certain taxes relating to oleomargarine, and for other purposes; text and amendments to the bill; taxes under Internal Revenue Code for oleomargarine, processed butter, and adulterated butter; import duty under Tariff Act for oleomargarine and butter; average hourly rate for select states; beef and veal from milk-producing animals; cost of producing milk; Arkansas oleomargarine laws; coconut oil taxes and import duties; income figures for select agricultural products; five leading oleomargarine producers; list of qualified manufacturers of oleomargarine.

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                                              Title:   Oleomargarine: bills to repeal tax, 1949

                                              Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                              Date:  1949

                                              Resource type:   text

                                              Topics include proposed bills to repeal tax on oleomargarine; Aiken's opposition to oleomargarine being passed off as butter; text of proposed bills to repeal tax on margarine (S. 60, S. 117, S. 254, S. 332, H.R. 2023).

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                                                Title:   Regulations no. 9 relating to the taxes on oleomargarine, adulterated butter and process or renovated butter under the acts of August 2, 1886 (24 Stat., 209), May 9, 1902 (32 Stat., 193), August 10, 1912 (37 Stat., 273), October 1, 1918 (40 Stat., 1008), July 10, 1930 (46 Stat, . 1022), March 4, 1931 (46 Stat., 1549) and February 24, 1933 (47 STat., 902) Revised April 1936.

                                                Creator:  United States. Office of Internal Revenue.

                                                Date:  1936

                                                1936 Internal Revenue Service regulations relating to the taxes on oleomargarine, adulterated butter and process or renovated butter.

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                                                  Title:   S. 1418: Provide Adjustment of Maximum Prices on Milk, 1943-1944

                                                  Creator:  Aiken, George D. (George David), 1892-1984.

                                                  Date:  1943-1944

                                                  Resource type:   text

                                                  Topics include report, drafts and text of S.1418: Adjustment of Milk Prices, submitted by Senators Eastland (MS) and McClellan (AR); dairy subsidies, price ceilings, and milk production.

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